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Several papers and presentations were published during my PhD research project and also afterwards several presentations were given. In the following table these papers and presentations are listed. Most of them can be downloaded from this website, some of them are already published in scientific Journals and are copyright protected.



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Simulation of Dry Bulk Terminals, presentation at the DBTG Technical & Operational Meeting, Rotterdam 21st of April 2016.

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Simulation-based tuning of the terminal's employment to the varying workload

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Simulation-integrated design of terminals

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Simulation-integrated Design of Dry Bulk Terminals      

PhD Thesis


Belt conveyor network design using simulation                              

Journal of Simulation, advance online publication [doi: 10.1057/jos.2014.38]


Simulation based rescheduling of the stacker-reclaimers operation

Journal of Computational Science, 10C, pp. 119-128


Simulation based determination of the required stockyard size for dry bulk terminals                                  

Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 42, pp. 119-128


Operational control for stacker-reclaimers        

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Stockyard layout (re)design

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Simulation-based operational control of a dry bulk terminal

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Measuring and improving dry bulk terminal performance

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Modeling the arrival process at dry bulk terminals

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Dry bulk terminal characteristics

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20170908 Logos Klanten



The European power market is undergoing significant changes. Thanks to the ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions significant investments were made in renewable energy sources like wind and solar. However, fossil fuels like gas and thermal coal will still be needed in future to prevent energy shut downs. The European power market was modeled using Genscape’s EPSI Platform to determine future thermal coal consumption per power plant. Together with projected market shares per plant for the deliveries from several deep-sea terminals, their future throughputs were determined.

Fuel generation Germany


Simulation expert

Adding/Downsizing Terminal Assets

For several terminal operators acting in the dry bulk industry, liquid bulk and Roll-on/Roll-off, discrete-event simulation models were developed. These computer models represent terminal’s operation and use historical data (f.e. about arrival and handling processes of ships) as realistic input. Simulation studies were performed answering questions for terminal operators about what-if scenario’s for adding or down-sizing terminal assets or implementing new operational procedures.

20170908 Screen dumps Simulation Models
20170915 Demand-driven staff scheduling

Performance evaluation of demand-driven staff scheduling at maritime terminals

The unpredictability of port activities makes rostering for their workers complicated. Nevertheless, the single largest expenditure for most port operations is labor costs, thus even a fractional reduction can translate into huge savings. For several terminal operators, simulation models were developed and simulation studies were performed to evaluate terminal’s performance when flexible staffing will be implemented. Using the simulation outcomes, terminals operators were informed about potential benefits to underpin business investments. Terminal operators were advised about the requirements that have to be met for a successful implementation of demand-driven staff scheduling.

Project management

I worked for several years as a project manager at a system integrator for automatic welding equipment in the Netherlands. I was responsible to realize fully-automated, custom-build production lines for the European manufacturing industry. Some examples were production lines for upright frames to be used in pallet racking systems, for car components for the tier-suppliers in the German automotive industry, or production lines to manufacture design radiators or temporary fences. All activities from engineering until commissioning were organized and managed to realize machines within planning and budget and with a satisfied customer.

PhD Thesis

To meet the expected increase of the seaborne trade flows for coal and iron ore new dry bulk terminals have to be built or existing terminals need to be expanded. However, due to the absence of a comprehensive design method for dry bulk terminals, designs are nowadays forced to be based on average values, rules-of-thumb and practical experiences. Unfortunately, the values suggested in literature for rules-of-thumb match poorly with characteristics of actual terminals. Furthermore, the impact of stochastic variations on terminal designs is hardly considered nowadays.

Modeling and designing dry bulk terminals as a whole is complicated due to the dependencies between the terminal subsystems. That’s why I decomposed the terminal in subsystems (seaside, landside, stockyard and belt conveyor network), I analyzed these subsystems separately and at the end, I merged these subsystems. For each subsystem a discrete-event simulation models was developed to include the stochastic processes and specific operational procedures. These models were used to assess the parameters that affect the terminal design. The total terminal model covers all subsystems. This model was validated using real-world operational terminal data and used for the formulation and evaluation of terminal designs.

I have some copies left from my PhD thesis, so if you are interested please contact me.

PhD thesis


Exspecta was founded in May 2014 by Teus van Vianen after finishing his PhD project. Teus received his MSc degree in mechanical engineering from Delft University of Technology in 2005. After his study, he worked for five years in the machinery industry, two years as a project engineer and three years as a project manager. In June 2010, he returned to the academic world and started his PhD project “Simulation-integrated design of dry bulk terminals”. During his research, the parameters that affect a dry bulk terminal (re)design were discovered and simulation tools were developed to support the design process. Teus defended his PhD thesis successfully at January, 13th 2015 in Delft.  He started Exspecta as a consultancy firm to bring the theoretical knowledge and simulation models developed into the logistics industry, specifically for terminal operators and terminal designers. 


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Picture Teus van Vianen